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7th International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy, will be organized around the theme “Unifying the new discoveries and advanced approaches towards Addiction”
Addiction Therapy 2017 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Addiction Therapy 2017
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Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social and spiritual manifestations. This is reflected in an individual pathologically pursuing reward and/or relief by substance use and other behaviors.
Addiction is characterized by inability to consistently abstain, impairment in behavioral control and craving, diminished recognition of significant problems with one’s behaviors and interpersonal relationships, and a dysfunctional emotional response. Like other chronic diseases, addiction often involves cycles of relapse and remission. Without treatment or engagement in recovery activities, addiction is progressive and can result in disability or premature death.
Addiction puts a great burden on affected individuals and their families, causing widespread morbidity and behavioral dysfunction. Crime associated with drug abuse and the control of addictive therapeutics pose great legal and societal challenges. Drugs of addiction induce fundamental changes in brain biochemistry, activating neuronal reward circuits and acting as neuronal and cardiovascular stimulants. Research in the Department of Pharmacology aims to understand how addictive agents such as nicotine, amphetamines or cocaine affect neurotransmitter receptors and transporters, and how they change neuronal signal transduction to initiate addiction. Other efforts focus on the discovery of novel analgesics that may replace addictive analgesics treatments in the future.
According to Alcoholics Anonymous UK, who says they have no unique definition for alcoholism it may be described as a physical compulsion, together with a mental obsession. Apart from having an enormous craving for alcohol, an alcoholic often yields to that craving at the worst possible times. The alcoholic knows neither when nor how to stop drinking.
WHAT IS BEING DRINKING? Binge drinking is a serious problem it means heavy episodic drinking, a modern epithet for drinking alcoholic beverages with the primary intention of becoming intoxicated by heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time. This type of problematic drinking which leads to alcohol dependency is called alcoholism. In this dependency various psychological and clinical changes takes place in the human body including alcoholic liver diseases. Women alcoholism during pregnancy may result in fetal alcohol syndrome which is a pattern of seviour physical and mental defects in the developing fetus. Alcoholic polyneuropathy is damage to the nerves that results from excessive drinking of alcohol, chronic pancreatitis & Peptic ulcers is also a serious disease caused due to alcohol addiction. Delirium tremens (DTs) is caused by alcohol withdrawal after a period of heavy drinking and lead to severe mental and nervous system changes. Various chemotherapeutic agents like methadone are used for alcohol detoxification
Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. Psychoactive substance use can lead to dependence syndrome - a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and that typically include a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance, and sometimes a physical withdrawal state.
Policies which influence the levels and patterns of substance abuse and related harm can significantly reduce the public health problems attributable to substance abuse, and interventions at the health care system level can work towards the restoration of health in affected individuals.
Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by compulsive, or uncontrollable, drug seeking and use despite harmful consequences and changes in the brain, which can be long lasting. These changes in the brain can lead to the harmful behaviors seen in people who use drugs. Drug addiction is also a relapsing disease. Relapse is the return to drug use after an attempt to stop.
The path to drug addiction begins with the voluntary act of taking drugs. But over time, a person's ability to choose not to do so becomes compromised. Seeking and taking the drug becomes compulsive. This is mostly due to the effects of long-term drug exposure on brain function. Addiction affects parts of the brain involved in reward and motivation, learning and memory, and control over behavior.
Addiction is a disease that affects both the brain and behavior.
The neurobiology of addiction encompasses more than the neurochemistry of reward. The frontal cortex of the brain and underlying white matter connections between the frontal cortex and circuits of reward, motivation and memory are fundamental in the manifestations of altered impulse control, altered judgment, and the dysfunctional pursuit of rewards (which is often experienced by the affected person as a desire to “be normal”) seen in addiction--despite cumulative adverse consequences experienced from engagement in substance use and other addictive behaviors. The frontal lobes are important in inhibiting impulsivity and in assisting individuals to appropriately delay gratification. When persons with addiction manifest problem in deferring gratification, there is a neurological locus of these problems in the frontal cortex. Frontal lobe morphology, connectivity and functioning are still in the process of maturation during adolescence and young adulthood, and early exposure to substance abuse is another significant factor in the development of addiction. Many neuroscientists believe that developmental morphology is the basis that makes early-life exposure to substances such an important factor.
Addictive disorders are caused by multiple factors, including genetic vulnerability, environmental stressors, social pressures, individual personality characteristics and psychiatric problems. From a neurological standpoint, addictive disorders arise when a substance changes the way the user’s brain feels pleasure. Addictive substances alter the brain’s ability to send and receive chemicals called neurotransmitters, which cause pleasure. The addictive substances can prevent nerves in the brain called neurons from receiving these pleasure chemicals, meaning the drug user relies on the drug, rather than his or her natural brain chemicals, for feelings of pleasure.
Most of the knowledge available regarding substance abuse and use comes from studying adult populations. A lack of research studying young adult substance abuse and use leaves questions concerning how it differs from substance abuse in other age groups unanswered.
Some adolescents are more at risk of developing addictive disorders, including adolescents with one or more of the following conditions present: 1) Children of substance abusers. 2) Adolescents who are victims of physical, sexual or psychological abuse. 3) Adolescents with mental health problems, especially depressed and suicidal teens. 4) Physically disabled adolescents.
Addiction psychiatry that focuses on the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of people who are suffering from one or more disorders related to addiction. This may include disorders involving legal and illegal drugs, gambling, sex, food, and other impulse control disorders. Addiction psychiatrists are substance abuse experts. Growing amounts of scientific knowledge, such as the health effects and treatments to substance abuse, have led to advancements in the field of addiction psychiatry. These advancements in understanding the neurobiology of rewarding behavior, along with federal funding, has allowed for ample opportunity for research in the discipline of addiction psychiatry.
The care of patients whose lives are complicated by the effects of substance use. The clinical rotations are primarily located in addiction treatment and experience in the various levels of care and treatment modalities available to address these problems. The emphasis is to understand addiction as a chronic brain disease that can be successfully treated by a comprehensive bio psychosocial approach including medications which target the underlying brain pathophysiology.
Depression and anxiety disorders are different, but people with depression often experience symptoms similar to those of an anxiety disorder, such as nervousness, irritability, and problems sleeping and concentrating. But each disorder has its own causes and its own emotional and behavioral symptoms. Many people who develop depression have a history of an anxiety disorder earlier in life. There is no evidence one disorder causes the other, but there is clear evidence that many people suffer from both disorders.
Opioids are broad spectrum analgesics that may be beneficial to alleviate the intense perception of algesia in patients suffering with pain. They have been one of the most controversial analgesics, in part because of their potential for addiction. Opioids or any currently available analgesic will not provide effective analgesia for every patient with chronic neuropathic pain (NP), but overall opioids are considered to be a second or third line class of analgesics that may provide reasonable analgesia to some patients with chronic NP. Although opioids may alleviate chronic NP, overall, NP tends to be less opioid responsive than nociceptive pain.
When a drug user has a mental illness prior to drug use, it may be hard to identify symptoms that are exclusively due to the drug use itself. Most symptoms, if the condition is unrelated to drugs, will continue after abstinence from the drug. The opposite is true for drug-induced Disorders; the schizophrenic-like effects will more or less subside after the drug wears off. However, this is not true for all drug users as frequent and prolonged use can cause side effects that last up to years after use discontinue
Drugs like cocaine, cannabis, and hallucinogens can cause mental health problems and, when paired with a pre-existing mental illness, can exacerbate the symptoms of such illnesses. Some drugs, when taken frequently for long periods of time, can actually manifest as psychotic symptoms indicative of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Early symptoms of Addiction Induced Brain Disorders are gradual and progress as the individual ages and/or drug use continues. Aside from delusions and hallucinations, here are some things to look for: 1) Changes in emotion: no emotional response, difficulty expressing feelings, flat affect (appearance or no emotional expression). 2) Lethargy; lack of motivation. 3) Socially withdrawn. 4) Incoherence in thought and actions; disorganized speech. 5) Violent behavior; erratic, sometimes dangerous, actions.
New advances in psychology and neuroscience have shed light on the changes that long term use of alcohol and other drugs brings into the brain especially in brain reward system, to foster continued and chronic patterns of compulsive drug abuse. New research topics in addiction include Behavioral Pharmacology Research, Relationship between youth violence and substance abuse, effect of alcohol on cognitive functioning and cocaine vaccines and addiction epidemiological research. Behavioral Pharmacology Research implies broad-based substance abuse clinical research program encompassing both human laboratory research and outpatient treatment research. Cocaine abuse is an ongoing and serious problem therefore vaccines against cocaine are being developed.
Drug rehabilitation (often drug rehab or just rehab) is a term for the processes of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment, for dependency on psychoactive substances such as alcohol, prescription drugs, and street drug such as cocaine, heroin or amphetamines. The general intent is to enable the patient to confront substance dependence, if present, and cease substance abuse in order to avoid the psychological, legal, financial, social, and physical consequences that can be caused, especially by extreme abuse. Treatment includes medication for depression or other disorders, counseling by experts and sharing of experience with other addicts. Some rehab centers include meditation and spiritual wisdom in the treatment process. A few centers also treat gambling with the same techniques as are used in drug rehabilitation.
Various advancements in addiction treatment techniques will help in providing quality care for people with unhealthy alcohol, tobacco, or other drug abuse. Among them Cognitive behavioral therapy is a form of psychotherapy designed to treat behavioral effects of substance abuse. The Behavioral Pharmacology Research is a substance abuse clinical research program encompassing both human laboratory research and outpatient treatment research. Neuro-rehabilitation and addicton therapy offers complex medical process which aims to aid recovery from a nervous system injury due to addiction. 12 step recovery therapy involves an active engagement strategy designed to increase the likelihood of a substance abuser becoming affiliated with and actively involved in 12-step self-help groups, thereby promoting abstinence. It has long been an important part of the recovery process and the basis for many recovery programs.
The International Nurses Society on Addictions (IntNSA) is a professional specialty organization founded in 1975 for nurses committed to the prevention, intervention, treatment, and management of addictive disorders including alcohol and other drug dependencies, nicotine dependencies, eating disorders, dual and multiple diagnosis, and process addictions such as gambling.
Behavioral approaches help engage people in drug abuse treatment, provide incentives for them to remain abstinent, modify their attitudes and behaviors related to drug abuse, and increase their life skills to handle stressful circumstances and environmental cues that may trigger intense craving for drugs and prompt another cycle of compulsive abuse. Below are a number of behavioral therapies shown to be effective in addressing substance abuse (effectiveness with particular drugs of abuse is denoted in parentheses).
• Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
• Contingency Management Interventions/Motivational Incentives
• Community Reinforcement Approach plus Vouchers
• Motivational Enhancement Therapy
• The Matrix Model