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7th International Conference on Addiction Medicine and Research Therapy, will be organized around the theme “Expanding Access to Novel Methodologies & Innovation in Recovery Therapy on addiction and Behavioral Health-Care.”
Addiction Therapy 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Addiction Therapy 2018
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Addiction is defined as the habitual compulsion to engage in a certain activity or utilize a substance, despite the potentially devastating consequences on the individual's physical, emotional, mental, spiritual, and financial well-being. Instead of addressing life's obstacles, tackling daily stress and/or confronting past or present trauma, the addict responds to pain by resorting to a pseudo-coping mechanism. Addiction offers an illusory refuge and leads people down a self-destructive path that takes a heavy toll on both themselves and those around them. Addiction alters the emotions of the addict, who turns to the substance in search of a psychological high or a fast chemical fix. The addict uses the substance or engages in the activity to achieve stress relief, attain a sense of control, change his or her mood, and/or banish real-life issues.
Typically, addiction manifests both psychological and physical characteristics. Physical dependence occurs when an individual's body develops a dependence on a certain substance and experiences withdrawal symptoms upon discontinuing the consumption. Abuse of caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, barbiturates, marijuana, opiates, amphetamines, cocaine, and/or benzodiazepines trigger physical dependence. While initially an addictive substance induces pleasure to the user, his or her continued consumption is driven more by a need to eliminate the anxiety brought about by its absence, thus leading the individual to compulsive behavior. In addition, the addict's physical dependence on the substance often becomes a determinative factor in his ongoing use of the drug. Psychological dependency becomes evident when the addict experiences withdrawal symptoms such as depression, cravings, insomnia, and irritability. Both behavioral addiction and substance addiction usually give rise to psychological dependence.
The speed with which an addict becomes dependent varies with his or her psychological susceptibility, genetic makeup, social factors, the substance itself, and the degree of euphoria or pleasure, the form of ingestion, and the frequency and volume of consumption. Addiction is a progressive disease, with the user needing a larger quantity of the substance to achieve tolerance, or the dopamine intoxication effect. The addict often progresses to more powerful substances trying to re-experience their initial 'high.' Addiction produces a state of chaos and wreaks havoc on every facet of an individual's life- from family and personal relationships, spiritual existence, and social life, to health, business relationships, and finances. It leads to legal problems, low self-esteem, self-loathing, broken values, and broken promises, difficulties in the workplace, and failed marriages and/or disintegration of close relationships. Substance abuse and behavioral addiction cause an addict's life to become unmanageable and his or her lifestyle to spiral out of control.
Alcoholism is the most severe form of alcohol abuse and involves the inability to manage drinking habits. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder. Alcohol use disorder is organized into three categories: mild, moderate and severe. Each category has various symptoms and can cause harmful side effects. If left untreated, any type of alcohol abuse can spiral out of control.
Individuals struggling with alcoholism often feel as though they cannot function normally without alcohol. This can lead to a wide range of issues and impact professional goals, personal matters, relationships and overall health. Over time, the serious side effects of consistent alcohol abuse can worsen and produce damaging complications.
"Alcoholism was never called a disease because, technically speaking, it is not a disease entity. Therefore we always called it an illness, or a malady - a far safer term to use."
Binge drinking’ means drinking heavily on a single occasion, or drinking continuously over a number of days or weeks. You might also know this as ‘getting wasted’, ‘partying’, ‘going out’, etc.
Binge drinking means:
- For men: drinking more than 6 drinks in one sitting.
- For women: drinking more than 4 drinks in one sitting.
People who binge drink:
- don’t necessarily drink every day
- may not know their own limits
- may not mean to drink a lot
- might feel peer pressured to drink large amounts
- might feel awkward in social situations when they aren’t drinking.
- Track 2-1Binge Drinking
A Mental Health Disorders / Mental Illness is a condition that affects a person's thinking, feeling or mood. Such conditions may affect someone's ability to relate to others and function each day. Each person will have different experiences, even people with the same diagnosis.
Recovery, including meaningful roles in social life, school and work, is possible, especially when you start treatment early and play a strong role in your own recovery process.
A mental health condition isn’t the result of one event. Research suggests multiple, linking causes. Genetics, environment and lifestyle influence whether someone develops a mental health condition. A stressful job or home life makes some people more susceptible, as do traumatic life events like being the victim of a crime. Biochemical processes and circuits and basic brain structure may play a role, too.
Bipolar disorder causes dramatic highs and lows in a person’s mood, energy and ability to think clearly
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by severe, unstable mood swings, impulsivity and instability, poor self-image and stormy relationships.
- Track 3-1Bipolar Disorder
- Track 3-2Borderline Personality Disorder
- Track 3-3Schizophrenia
Depression (major depressive disorder) is a common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act. Fortunately, it is also treatable. Depression causes feelings of sadness and/or a loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. It can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems and can decrease a person’s ability to function at work and at home
Depression affects an estimated one in 15 adults (6.7%) in any given year. And one in six people (16.6%) will experience depression at some time in their life. Depression can strike at any time, but on average, first appears during the late teens to mid-20s. Women are more likely than men to experience depression. Some studies show that one-third of women will experience a major depressive episode in their lifetime
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear. Anxiety is a worry about future events and fear is a reaction to current events. These feelings may cause physical symptoms, such as a fast heart rate and shakiness. There are a number of anxiety disorders: including generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, social anxiety disorder, separation anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, panic disorder, and selective-mutism. The disorder differs by what results in the symptoms. People often have more than one anxiety disorder.
The cause of anxiety disorders is a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Risk factors include a history of child abuse, family history of mental disorders, and poverty. Anxiety disorders often occur with other mental disorders, particularly major depressive disorder, personality disorder, and substance use disorder. To be diagnosed symptoms typically need to be present for at least six months, be more than would be expected for the situation, and decrease functioning. Other problems that may result in similar symptoms including hyperthyroidism; heart disease; caffeine, alcohol, or cannabis use; and withdrawal from certain drugs, among others.
Without treatment, anxiety disorders tend to remain Treatment may include lifestyle changes, counseling, and medications. Counseling is typically with a type of cognitive behavioral therapy. Medications, such as antidepressants or beta blockers, may improve symptoms.
About 12% of people are affected by an anxiety disorder in a given year and between 5-30% are affected at some point in their life. They occur about twice as often in females as males, and generally begin before the age of 25. The most common are specific phobia which affects nearly 12% and social anxiety disorder which affects 10% at some point in their life. They affect those between the ages of 15 and 35 the most and become less common after the age of 55. Rates appear to be higher in the United States and Europe.
Characterized by panic attacks—sudden feelings of terror—sometimes striking repeatedly and without warning. Often mistaken for a heart attack, a panic attack causes powerful, physical symptoms including chest pain, heart palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath and stomach upset. Many people will go to desperate measures to avoid having an attack, including social isolation or avoiding going to specific places.
Everyone tries to avoid certain things or situations that make them uncomfortable or even fearful. However, for someone with a phobia, certain places, events or objects create powerful reactions of strong, irrational fear. Most people with specific phobias have several triggers. To avoid panicking, someone with specific phobias will work hard to avoid their triggers. Depending on the type and number of triggers, this fear and the attempt to control it can seem to take over a person’s life.
Unlike shyness, this disorder causes intense fear, often driven by irrational worries about social humiliation–“saying something stupid,” or “not knowing what to say.” Someone with social anxiety disorder may not take part in conversations, contribute to class discussions, or offer their ideas, and may become isolated. Panic attack symptoms are a common reaction.
Other anxiety disorders include: agoraphobia, separation anxiety disorder and substance/medication-induced anxiety disorder involving intoxication or withdrawal or medication treatment.
- Track 4-1Panic Disorder
- Track 4-2Phobias
- Track 4-3Social Anxiety Disorder
Addiction is defined as a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences. It is considered a brain disease because drugs change the brain; they change its structure and how it works. These brain changes can be long lasting and can lead to many harmful, often self-destructive, behaviors.
Abuse of and addiction to alcohol, nicotine, and illicit and prescription drugs cost Americans more than $700 billion a year in increased health care costs, crime, and lost productivity. Every year, illicit and prescription drugs and alcohol contribute to the death of more than 90,000 Americans, while tobacco is linked to an estimated 480,000 deaths per year. (Hereafter, unless otherwise specified, drugs refers to all of these substances.)
NIDA continues to use the term “addiction” to describe compulsive drug seeking despite negative consequences. However, “addiction” is not considered a specific diagnosis in the fifth edition of The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5)—a diagnostic manual used by clinicians that contain descriptions and symptoms of all mental disorders classified by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
In 2013, APA updated the DSM, replacing the categories of substance abuse and substance dependence with a single category: substance use disorder. The symptoms associated with a substance use disorder fall into four major groupings: impaired control, social impairment, risky use, and pharmacological criteria (i.e., tolerance and withdrawal).
The new DSM describes a problematic pattern of use of an intoxicating substance leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by at least two of the following, occurring within a 12-month period:
Addiction psychiatry is a medical subspecialty within psychiatry that focuses on the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of people who are suffering from one or more disorders related to addiction. This may include disorders involving legal and illegal drugs, gambling, sex, food, and other impulse control disorders. Addiction psychiatrists are substance abuse experts. Growing amounts of scientific knowledge, such as the health effects and treatments to substance abuse, have led to advancements in the field of addiction psychiatry. These advancements in understanding the neurobiology of rewarding behavior, along with federal funding, has allowed for ample opportunity for research in the discipline of addiction psychiatry. Addiction psychiatry is an expanding field, and currently there is a high demand for substance abuse experts in both the private and public sector.
Addiction psychiatry encompasses both medicine and psychotherapy, or professional therapeutic interaction, as the means of treating individuals. However, not all substance addictions contain approved medication for treatment. In a conventional addiction psychiatry session, addiction psychiatrists will gain a better understanding of their patient's lifestyle by gathering medical history and the patient's mental health concerns. Next, the psychiatrist will construct different possible solutions to the patient's problem; if necessary addiction psychiatrists will prescribe medication. Moreover, addiction psychiatrists recommend the benefits of 12-Step programs such as Narcotics Anonymous and Alcoholics Anonymous and often encourage patients to seek external support. Addiction psychiatry can also be a method of recovery for those who have attempted to cease their drug or alcohol abuse without prior success.
Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. Psychoactive substance use can lead to dependence syndrome - a cluster of behavioral, cognitive, and physiological phenomena that develop after repeated substance use and that typically include a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to drug use than to other activities and obligations, increased tolerance, and sometimes a physical withdrawal state.
Policies which influence the levels and patterns of substance abuse and related harm can significantly reduce the public health problems attributable to substance abuse, and interventions at the health care system level can work towards the restoration of health in affected individuals.
Substance abuse is rare before the teenage years.
Most frequently abused substances include:
Alcohol, Tobacco, Marijuana, Hashish, Over-the-counter drugs (such as dextromethorphan and pseudoephedrine), Benzodiazepines (like Ativan and Valium), Stimulants: Methamphetamine or Cocaine Club drugs: (Ecstasy, ketamine, MDA, or Rohypnol), Hallucinogens: (LSD, mushrooms), Inhalants: (glue, lighter fluid, gasoline, or paint thinner) Narcotic painkillers: codeine and morphine
Holistic medicine is an umbrella term used to describe a variety of therapies that attempt to treat the patient as a whole person. That is, instead of treating an illness, as you would in traditional Western medicine, holistic medicine looks at an individual’s overall physical, mental, spiritual, and emotional well-being before recommending treatment.
Alternatives Behavioral Health adopts a truly revolutionary approach to patients of alcoholism and addiction treatment. Rather than viewing sobriety as the sole alternative to addiction, Alternatives empowers patient’s to healthily manage alcohol use. Alternative’s Bio-Affective Management system provides patient’s with addiction education and guides individuals to produce evidence-based strategies for balanced lifestyle choices. Alternatives works with patient’s to address the relationship between emotions and self-destructive behaviors while providing evidence-based techniques to improve life skills and develop healthy coping mechanisms.
Addiction Rehabilitation & Addiction Recovery The journey to a healthy, sober life is not a quick and easy one. It is a lifelong commitment of dedication and hard work. The rewards gained from transforming a life of addiction into a life of recovery, however, are immeasurable and well worth the effort. Like any journey, the road to sobriety begins with simple steps forward.
The specific steps of a person's addiction rehabilitation process will vary according to the type of addiction, the treatment plan used, and the individual seeking rehab. However, all recovery processes tend to share certain key elements:
· Detoxification (detox).
· Rehabilitation (rehab).
· Ongoing Recovery.
Intake is the process of determining whether a particular rehab center is a good fit for you (and vice versa). This is a stage to ask the questions of the center that are most important to you.
The rehab center will also have some questions for you and may ask you to undergo some diagnostic tests or screenings to best determine how the program can most optimally tailor its treatment plan to you and your particular needs and stage of addiction. The center will likely be interested in knowing the severity of your addiction, your personal drug use history, family history of addiction, and even financial arrangements for treatment.
Detoxification (detox): Most drug and all alcohol addictions require a phase of detoxification at the start of the rehabilitation process. This stage of detox is designed to remove all traces of drugs and alcohol from the body. In some cases, maintenance medication may be given to ease the withdrawal symptoms associated with certain drugs, including opiate prescription drugs and heroin.
Detoxification is generally a safe process when undergone in a supervised medical setting. Since detox for certain individuals and substances can be potentially very severe — and in some cases, deadly — it's not advised for individuals to detox on their own at home.
Rehabilitation (rehab): Once individuals get through the initial detox from drugs or alcohol, they will continue through rehabilitation. This is where patients get to the core reasons behind their addictions, addressing those issues so they can effectively move on with their lives without going back to drugs, alcohol, or their addictive behavior.
Patients learn to identify drug use triggers and how to deal with these triggering situations when they come up. If patients have a plan for various tempting situations, they are more likely to put their plan into action and avoid relapse.
This type of cognitive behavioral therapy addresses both the thoughts that patients have in relation to substance abuse and also the thoughts they have about life in general. It helps individuals reform their thinking patterns and make behavioral changes toward a healthy, sober life.
Recovery: Even after patients have completed their rehabilitation program, they are not finished with recovery. In fact, for many individuals, recovery is a lifelong process, requiring their ongoing work and attention. At times, the path to lifelong recovery may feel easy. Other times, it will be difficult for individuals to withstand the temptation to relapse. Like anything in life, it's a journey that may feature varying terrain, so lifelong support is essential.
- Track 9-1Intake
- Track 9-2Detoxification (detox)
- Track 9-3Rehabilitation (rehab)
- Track 9-4 Recovery
Tobacco Smoking is a practice in which tobacco is burned and the smoke inhaled or tasted. Smoking is primarily practiced as a route of administration for nicotine through the lungs; it is a way of getting nicotine into your system rapidly.
The most popular current method of smoking is through cigarettes, mainly industrially manufactured ones. Some people use hand-rolled loose tobacco, while others smoke pipes, cigars or hookahs.
Over one billion people globally smoke tobacco regularly
Nicotine dependence ― also called tobacco dependence ― is an addiction to tobacco products caused by the drug nicotine. Nicotine dependence means you can't stop using the substance, even though it's causing you harm.
Nicotine produces physical and mood-altering effects in your brain that are temporarily pleasing. These effects make you want to use tobacco and lead to dependence. At the same time, stopping tobacco use causes withdrawal symptoms, including irritability and anxiety.
While it's the nicotine in tobacco that causes nicotine dependence, the toxic effects of tobacco result from other substances in tobacco. Smokers have much higher rates of heart disease, stroke and cancer than nonsmokers do.
Addiction Nursing This unit of study explores drug and alcohol addiction, treatment options and relapse prevention. Students will examine the concepts of therapeutic relationships and legal and ethical dimensions of caring for clients with addictions. Case management for clients with a drug and alcohol addiction involves a collaborative approach to service delivery; it involves comprehensive treatment and management to ensure optimum recovery and relapse prevention. This unit of study explores the use of pharmacotherapies, case management and drug and alcohol counseling.
Addiction Pharmacology Introduction to pharmacology and neuropharmacology. Understanding of the biological basis for drug abuse and addiction. Major topics include: pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, introductory neuroanatomy, introductory neurophysiology, alcohol use and abuse, opiate use and abuse, cocaine and amphetamine abuse, barbiturate use and abuse, benzodiazepine use and abuse, hallucinogen abuse.
Addiction puts a great burden on affected individuals and their families, causing widespread morbidity and behavioral dysfunction. Crime associated with drug abuse and the control of addictive therapeutics pose great legal and societal challenges. Drugs of addiction induce fundamental changes in brain biochemistry, activating neuronal reward circuits and acting as neuronal and cardiovascular stimulants. Research in the Department of Pharmacology aims to understand how addictive agents such as nicotine, amphetamines or cocaine affect neurotransmitter receptors and transporters, and how they change neuronal signal transduction to initiate addiction. Other efforts focus on the discovery of novel analgesics that may replace addictive analgesics treatments in the future.
Addiction Science Scientists study the effects that drugs have on the brain and on people’s behavior. They use this information to develop programs for preventing drug abuse and for helping people recover from addiction. Further research helps transfer these ideas into practice in our communities.
For much of the past century, scientists studying drug abuse labored in the shadows of powerful myths and misconceptions about the nature of addiction. When scientists began to study addictive behavior in the 1930s, people addicted to drugs were thought to be morally flawed and lacking in willpower. Those views shaped society’s responses to drug abuse, treating it as a moral failing rather than a health problem, which led to an emphasis on punishment rather than prevention and treatment. Today, thanks to science, our views and our responses to addiction and other substance use disorders have changed dramatically. Groundbreaking discoveries about the brain have revolutionized our understanding of compulsive drug use, enabling us to respond effectively to the problem.
As a result of scientific research, we know that addiction is a disease that affects both the brain and behavior. We have identified many of the biological and environmental factors and are beginning to search for the genetic variations that contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Scientists use this knowledge to develop effective prevention and treatment approaches that reduce the toll drug abuse takes on individuals, families, and communities.
Addicted brain causes behavior changes
Brain imaging studies from drug-addicted individuals show physical, measurable changes in areas of the brain that are critical to judgment, decision making, learning and memory, and behavior control. Scientists believe that these changes alter the way the brain works, and may help explain the compulsive and destructive behaviors of addiction
A promising student might see his grades slip. A bubbly social butterfly might suddenly have trouble getting out of bed. A trustworthy sibling might start stealing or lying. Behavioral changes are directly linked to the drug user’s changing brain.
Cravings take over. These cravings are painful, constant, and distracting. The user starts seeking out drugs, no matter the consequences, often resulting in compulsive and destructive behaviors. Especially given the intensity of withdrawal symptoms, the body wants to avoid being in withdrawal at all costs
Prescription drug abuse is the use of a prescription medication in a way not intended by the prescribing doctor. Prescription drug abuse or problematic use includes everything from taking a friend's prescription painkiller for your backache to snorting or injecting ground-up pills to get high. Drug abuse may become ongoing and compulsive, despite the negative consequences.
An increasing problem, prescription drug abuse can affect all age groups, but it's more common in young people. The prescription drugs most often abused include opioid painkillers, sedatives, anti-anxiety medications and stimulants.
Early identification of prescription drug abuse and early intervention may prevent the problem from turning into an addiction.
Process addiction: Contrary to the commonly held belief that addiction is a dependence on alcohol, illicit drugs, prescription drugs or nicotine, behavioral science experts believe any source capable of stimulating an individual has the potential to become addictive.
Although process or behavioral addictions can cause devastating psychological effects, they are not associated with a high incidence of mortality like substance use addictions. Some of the more common activities identified as potential factors in the development of process addictions include gambling, sex, work, spending/compulsive shopping and use of the Internet.
Research has identified the presence of psychopathologies such as depression, substance dependence or withdrawal, social anxiety and a lack of social support as precursors to behavioral addictions. Furthermore, the high comorbidity of behavioral addictions and substance-related addictions suggests comparable underlying etiological mechanisms.
Evidence shows people who excessively participate in non-substance-related pleasurable activities undergo lasting chemical changes in the neural pathway of the reward system in the brain. There is increasing evidence individuals with a genetic predisposition to addictive behaviors have an inadequate number of dopamine receptors or have an insufficient amount of serotonin/dopamine. Therefore they cannot experience normal levels of pleasure from pursuits most people would find rewarding and seek out pleasure through activities that can be highly addictive.
Co-occurring disorder describes the simultaneous presence of a mental illness and a substance use disorder. The term co-occurring disorder replaces the terms dual disorder and dual diagnosis when referring to an individual who has a co-existing mental illness and a substance-use disorder. While commonly used to refer to the combination of substance-use and mental disorders, the term also refers to other combinations of disorders (such as mental disorders and intellectual disability).
People with co-occurring disorders often experience more severe and chronic medical, social, and emotional problems than people experiencing a mental health condition or substance-use disorder alone. Because they have two disorders, they are vulnerable to both relapse and a worsening of the psychiatric disorder. Further, addiction relapse often leads to psychiatric distress, and worsening of psychiatric problems often leads to addiction relapse. Thus, relapse prevention must be specifically designed for the unique needs of people with co-occurring disorders. Compared to patients who have a single disorder, patients with co-existing conditions often require longer treatment, have more crises, and progress more gradually in treatment.
Approximately 7.9 million adults had co-occurring disorders in 2014. During the past year, for those adults surveyed who experienced substance use disorders and any mental illness, rates were highest among adults ages 26 to 49 (42.7%). For adults with past-year serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders, rates were highest among those ages 18 to 25 (35.3%) in 2014.
Addiction therapy psychologists help people of all ages live happier, healthier and more productive lives. Psychologists apply research-based techniques to help people develop more effective habits. There are several approaches to therapy, including cognitive-behavioral, interpersonal and psychodynamic, among others, that help people work through their problems. Therapy is a collaborative treatment based on the relationship between an individual and a psychologist. A psychologist provides a supportive environment that allows you to talk openly with someone who is objective, neutral and nonjudgmental. Most therapy focuses on individuals, although psychotherapists also work with couples, families and groups
Addiction is a multifaceted problem, but one that can be treated effectively.
Treatment should be directed to the individual person rather than to their drug(s) of choice.
Treatment can be helpful even if the client initially goes involuntarily. (Eventually, the client's voluntary participation in treatment will influence their recovery path.)
Counseling and behavioral therapies are highly utilized and the best available treatment options for drug abuse.
Many agree that behavioral therapies are an essential element to treat substance use, but with so many options, it can be challenging to know what forms of treatment are available, how they differ, and which is best for the individual. It should also be mentioned that the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) does not believe that there is any one approach that is appropriate for every person.